AtoZ of TEL: SAMR Model (Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition)

The SAMR Model is a neat model developed by Dr, Ruben Puentedura as a way for educators to evaluate the incorporation of technology into their teaching. By reflecting upon your teaching and the technology that you use, SAMR helps educators to design and implement better learning activities incorporating that technology.
Diagram of the SAMR model

The model has four stages and is split into two with a threshold dividing the two halves. The lower level ‘Enhancement’, consisting of Substitution and Augmentation is where the technology is merely a replacement for an analogue activity with varying degrees of improvement. The upper half ‘Transformation’ consists of Modification and Redefinition is where the real learning happens. The technology allows for significant changes in the task and ultimately new forms of tasks which would not have been possible with the old analogue process.

Introduction to the SAMR Model (Common Sense Media video)

Many educators have drawn comparisons with Blooms taxonomy which also shows the progression from simply remembering and recalling information through to higher order thinking including analysis and creation. I can also see a synergy with the Edinburgh Napier 3E’s Framework and even Harold Jarche’s Personal Knowledge Management (PKM).


Other Links and Resources


If you wish to discuss the use of technology in your teaching please contact me at


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